///////////20 January 2009
Again any and all comments are of help and do not hold back I have thick skin!!!
This was a fun and short paper but we been talking about tracking alot so I did this paper on it let me know if you like and I also posted it to the mantrackinguniversity.com in pdf for peer review.
PRIMITIVE TRACKING – A Counter-Insurgency Technique That Should Be
Taught To All
History has shown that primitive tracking has been employed
as a viable skill set in numerous low-intensity conflicts, in more relevant and
modern times. Employment of these
skills has been used in Borneo,
Primitive tracking skills can be employed throughout the operational continuum, but is ideal in counter-insurgency operations. One of the major problems which faces military forces during counter-insurgency operations, is that of following up the insurgent after a contact has been made and he has retreated or dispersed, melting back into the populous (“Training Wing 5 Recce” 71). Only by vigorously pursuing the insurgent, wherever he is located, will it be possible for the military to dominate an area and reduce the activities of the enemy forces. To accomplish this, soldiers trained in tracking skills learn to watch for clues or signs of passage, inconsistent with the normal pattern or environmental baseline. Forced, as they are to move on foot, insurgents cannot avoid leaving traces of their passage through an area (“Australian SAS” 23-27). It’s these traces that the tracker uses to determine insurgent numbers in group, direction of travel, time and distance gap between tracker and insurgents, age of sign and load carried in the area and through deductive reasoning develop, determine or confirm tactical intelligence (Woods 111).
Primitive tracking enhances soldier’s survivability through improved situational awareness and attuned observation skills. By constantly being aware of the area of operations baseline a tracker learns to discern clues and signs not normally associated with the surroundings (Worsham 1-3). This helps to improves the soldiers’ awareness of mine and IED (Improvised Explosive Device) emplacements, possible ambush locations, as well as generally keeping the soldiers overall alertness levels in a higher state of readiness and thinking (subconsciously and consciously) constantly of his surrounding threat level, making the tracking trained soldier less likely to succumb to complacency (“FM 7-42” 80-82).
Primitive tracking, with its inherent skills of observation and awareness, makes all trained soldiers intelligence gatherers at the tactical level. During counter-insurgency operations all signs of the insurgents become a prime source of information and if properly interpreted, ultimately will lead to the capturing or killing of the insurgent force. The interpretation of such information obtained from tracks or other signs left by the enemy will give the small unit leader or patrol leader the information on the ground to make sound decisions at the tactical level, alleviative lulls for the ground commander and time for the insurgents to react to rapid pursuit or escape (McMichael 103-105).
Tactical tracking is a proven and relevant skill set and
tactical strategy that has been repeatedly proven highly successful throughout
the history of low-intensity and counter-insurgency conflicts, but continues to
be neglected by most conventional
I left out my footnotes!!
I left out my footnotes!!
Much has been said about the value of creative
military thinking. Certainly, it is being encouraged now in the
It is ironic to notice that the amphibious ability of the Army’s first armored personnel carrier (post-World War II) was an accident of design and not the product of a given military specification. Many years earlier, the Gatling gun was invented by a doctor.
At the beginning of the Civil War, a civilian with a
big canvas balloon tried especially hard to put across the idea of its military
value. Finally, he did, but against great resistance. In the
It is a paradox, perhaps, but military poverty and desperation represent one of the beet breeding grounds for new military ideas, and the products are usually primitive and simple.
The Molotov cocktail was bred of Soviet poverty-in
tanks. It was a crude and temporary expedient in World War II until the
The German V2 rockets were products of desperation, a pioneering effort that set the stage for the missile age. In a much different sense, the Red Chinese use of “human wave attacks” in the Korean War was a relative innovation and one born mainly of poverty in artillery, particularly in the early stages of the conflict.
Products of Wealth
As a rich first world nation, we have made some good innovations in post World War Two years. We have been the prime innovators of the operational use of helicopters in combat, but we must concede the French and British part credit too. Other nations of material wealth also have good records. 
Usually, a military innovation derived from wealth
requires more than just a technical start. It needs to be married to a tactical
or strategic companion. Take the case of paratroopers, the
The innovative products of wealth often hinge on the rather complex decision, simple in retrospect to abandon. Abandonment decisions are not always in respect to the obsolete, as in the case of horse cavalry. Such decisions are now related to abandonment of the new for the newer or the efficient for the more efficient. Traditionally, abandonment has been one of the most difficult of military decisions.
In World War II, American military decisions to wipe out coastal artillery and horse cavalry were not easily made. The Air Force has faced up to similar decisions to go from props to jets, at least in part, to missiles in underground silos. 
The decision to abandon the obsolete is a negative way of saying one is behind one’s military opponent. The decision to seek the new is positive, and it seeks to impose obsolescence on potential arsenals and military establishments.
For military purposes wealth is not fully measured by industrial, economic, and manpower capacity alone. Mental wealth represents something very valuable and singular, particularly military mental wealth. For example, the German creation and application of blitzkrieg symbolized such wealth. In the 1990’s, Army and Marine Corps efforts in the direction of aerial assault, vertical envelopment and our common quest for better mobility represent important doctrinal, tactical, and military wealth. It is in the field of tactics, techniques, and organization that military men are most often at their creative best. 
Products of War
World War II produced radar, the proximity fuse, napalm, the atomic bomb, PT (patrol torpedo) boats, midget submarines, tanks, guided missiles, and other weapons and materiel. Tactically, it produced or modernized hedgehog defenses, blitz, airborne assault, saturation bombing, close air support, and naval carrier warfare. It also revived and polished up guerrilla and counter-insurgency warfare. 
The Korean War witnessed the introduction of jet
aircraft in combat, saw
The 12-year British campaign in
The Indochina War produced no materiel and tactical
innovations, but it did demonstrate on the Communist side the military value of
human backs and coolie labor, which the Chinese had demonstrated in
From the Indochina War the French learned harsh
lessons and applied new approaches in their later military political campaign in
In these and other conflicts following World War II,
limited warfare was not modernized by any great technological advances. These
wars were fought with the weapons and materiel left over from the Great War. Men
on both sides endeavored to adjust and to try and fight each other in more
effective ways, but the premium was mainly on endurance of attrition. The
British in Malaya were inventive in tactics and technique, and the French in
The greatest military innovations among Communists in
the austerity of their military installations and mobility of their combat forces. The combination of these two elements has made them difficult to defeat simply because the Communists do not offer many large military targets until the last part of their campaigns
when they are usually winning.
Each time we manufacture a new military product or develop a modernized method or technique we encounter complexity. For example, we can airdrop bulldozers to create airstrips out of raw earth, but a new problem is created, dust. Next, we need oil, tar derivatives, or just plain rain. Thus, new techniques have a way of breeding new problems.
Multiply helicopters and land vehicles and we multiply logistic problems because fuel and maintenance are necessary. In World War II the tank was relatively simple for a mechanic to repair. Today, we must have turret mechanics in addition to engine mechanics and computer techs. As well communications grow more complicated by the day, with this the requirement for operator and maintenance skills rises.
No one advocates steps backward, but the need for materiel and logistic austerity in small wars and counter-insurgency may be something for us to reexamine. Enemies in such wars fight on a harshly austere basis. We arrive on the scene with mountains of gear and offer huge installations as targets. For a conflict the size of the Korean or Vietnam War these may be necessary, but they may not be for counter-guerrilla campaigns where we might want to provide the enemy with a minimum of stationary targets. 
Modem day technology improves military forces, but it provides expensive luxuries which our austere enemies in small wars choose to do without. The mechanical foxhole digger represents a luxury that entails a logistic problem of fuel, transport, and maintenance. It is a modernized substitute for muscle and the spade, but can it be afforded in small wars?
It may now be that one
of our greatest and most difficult military decisions will be the decision to
abandon. This does not refer to the materiel and organization we may need in a
big war, but it could apply to counter-guerrilla/insurgent warfare, we may yet
Invention and new ideas may come, not alone from technology, but from those who have fought. This is the need: military innovation and creativeness-even, as we fight.
HEY GENTS I CUT OUT MY FOOTNOTES TO SAVE ROOM JUST REVIEW FOR CONTENT I MY POST THIS TO SMALLWARS.COM FOR FEEDBACK. THEY HAVE SOME TEN POUND BRAINS ON THAT SITE THAT ARE ALWAYS WILLING TO HELP POINT IN THE CORRECT DIRECTION.
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comments or remarks you think will help the presentation.
This journal is kind of like me thinking out loud and attempting to answer my own questions on my readings. I will explain the answers what I think makes the Hinduism religion, what are the cultural and societal influences that have made Hinduism vital to the region in which it organized? I will also explain the desire for liberation from earthly existence.
What makes up the Hindu religion? I found it very hard to describe the belief system of Hinduism; in the premise that Hinduism lacks a uniting belief system. Hinduism is the third largest religion in the world. The Hinduism religion claims 837 million followers. Many variations of Hinduism have evolved over time and the many variations of Hindu religion in detail can be an exhausting task. There are several principles that are common among the various divisions. What makes up the Hindu religion is its own diversity. Hindu religion is based on a belief that all Gods are but one God. Hindus believe in Brahman. Brahman is made up of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva; the Creator, the Preserver, and the Destroyer respectively. The other common aspect of Hindus religion beliefs is karma, yoga, reincarnation, and the caste system. (1)
I found it interesting that Karma is a belief and that it is that of good and bad actions effect Hindu’s before and after lives. A Hindus’ life goal is to reach a level of balance, purity, wisdom, and peacefulness of mind. Hindus distinguish four paths to salvation. The first path to salvation is karma yoga. Karma yoga is known as the path through works. This is a path to salvation and emphasizes the idea that liberation from earthly existence. The second path to salvation is Jnana yoga. This path Jnana yoga is known as the path through knowledge. The basic principle of jnana yoga is that the cause of a Hindu’s burden of reincarnation is the lack of knowledge.
The next path to salvation is Bhakti yoga. This path is known for the path through devotion. It is known as the most popular path to salvation for Hindus. This path Bhakti yoga quenches the desire for a more emotional and personal approach to religion. This yoga involves the devotion to one of the Hindu gods. The fourth way to salvation is the way of mental concentration, or raja yoga. The Hidus have eight steps to achieve the mental concentration required of raja yoga. They are Yama, Niyamas, Asanas, Pranayama, Dhyrana, Dhyana and Samadi. (2)
Reincarnation is the Hindu’s pursuit in the ultimate goal of liberation from rebirth and merging with the reality. They believe that they are born more than one time and that the soul leaves the dead body for a new body. They believe that the new body may be an animal or some other life form, but the soul remains the same.
The caste system is an important part in Hinduism in
What are the cultural and societal influences that
have made Hinduism? I found in the readings and research that the cultural and
societal influences made Hinduism vital to the region in which it originated by
numerous traditions and social systems that were adhered by the people of
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Here is another assignment! Give
a glance and let me know if you see any glaring errors. I been busting my butt
to get all my work caught up! You guys with your opinions have been helpful. It
is always good to get extra eyes!
A ritual I have grown up with my
whole life is Catholic Mass. Catholic
Mass is a combination of prayers and ceremonies, which are celebrated as the
Holy Eucharist. The Holy Eucharist
is celebrated just as Christ implemented it at the Last Supper, and it is done
according to His command and in His honor. There
are two types of
The ritual of mass begins as soon
as you enter the church. When you
enter, you will find a font of Holy Water. Here,
as a Catholic, we dip our fingers into the water and with the same hand, make
the sign of the cross over our body as a reminder of our baptism.
As you proceed to your seat, before being seated, it is customary that
you genuflect. That is, to bend your
right knee until it reaches the floor. Then
you are seated. This is a time of
prayer. You kneel at your seat and
pray quietly before being seated to await the start of the
As the Mass begins, the entrance
procession is accompanied by the entrance hymn, which is the first of four
proper songs sung during the mass. The
procession enters in the order of the alter cross, followed by the candles, the
Book of Gospels, and lastly the priest. Once
all are in place, the priest sits, to wait for the hymn to be completed before
he begins. The priest then starts
with the greetings, and then moves on to the Penitential Rite and the sprinkling
of the Holy Water. This is where we
reflect on our sins and ask God to forgive us.
From this point on, is where we receive the readings of the
After the Homily, we recite the
Apostle’s Creed. This is when we
profess our faith and loyalty to the Catholic Church before the celebration of
the Eucharist. The priest then
prepares the gifts of the Eucharist. The
Eucharist is the Catholic communion. This
is where we receive the bread and the wine.
As a Catholic, we are taught that the bread and the wine become the body
and the blood of Christ. As the
priest prays over the Eucharist, he asks that the Lord change the bread and the
wine and transform it into the body and blood of Christ.
It is then received by the congregation in communion.
Following the communion, the Concluding Rite is done and this is the end
This is the Catholic Mass in a very short synopsis. The ritual of Mass is a very beautiful and spiritual act for a Catholic. For me personally, it gives me the feeling of being closer to God and with the knowledge that all my sins are forgiven, I know that I will someday go to heaven and live with Him forever. This gives me such a feeling of peace and love. As a child, this is a lot to understand and for the most part, I simply went through all the steps. It was a lot like remembering your lines in a play I suppose. The prayers are long and there are a lot of them. You go through a sort of training as a Catholic child growing up just to learn everything that it means to be a Catholic. It’s sort of like a second school. As an adult, you understand it all. It means something more than just playing a part in a play. It’s the faith and the knowing that God loves us all so much that he gave his only son to save us all. It’s inner peace and comfort and love. I don’t think that it is really possible to explain the feeling that you get from knowing these things. I think it is personal and it is probably different for everyone. However, that being said, as a Catholic, being in church, surrounded by fellow parishioners, there is a feeling of closeness. You feel as though you are part of this huge family, like you are all linked in a way that will keep you linked forever. There is just a common bond between Catholics that lasts a lifetime.
This is two other projects I
have done same drill. Let me know if they make sense and are quality writing.
Like always I have thick skin so hammer away!!
I have always been interested in Judaism but really knew little about it. With this journal I attempted to compare it with Christianity to help me understand the differences and put it into perspective. And in doing this I found out a host of interesting facts.
Judaism and Christianity are two of the many religions of the world. Both of these religions can be found throughout every country in the world. They share many similarities and differences.
People who are followers of Judaism are called Jews. There are four different divisions in Judaism. The divisions of Judaism are: Orthodox Judaism, Reformed Judaism, Conservative Judaism, and Secular Judaism. All four of these sects are unified together in one main belief. The foundation of Judaism is the belief in one God. (1)
In Orthodox Judaism, the Jews accept the bible as God intended them to. These Jews do not change their belief or living style to suite the mode of modern influences. The Reformed Jews accept the moral laws of the bible and the ceremonies. (2) Reformed Jews do not follow Jewish customs that are not accepted in modern civilization. Instead they move away from the traditional practices in their worship. Conservative Judaism and Traditional Judaism are very closely tied. The Conservative practice is a little stricter in following the dogma of the Orthodox observance. Although, Conservative Jews make adjustments to their beliefs or way of living as long as it is within the Jewish belief. The last division of Judaism is Secular Judaism. Secular Jews are people who are Jewish, but do not follow the Jewish beliefs. (3)
Another component of the universal Jewish belief is that the Messiah is yet to come. When there is peace in the world the Messiah will come and the dead will rise from their graves and be whole once more. That is the reason that until now and even still among the Conservative and the Orthodox, Jews are forbidden to donate organs for transplant, be embalmed or cremated. (4)
Orthodox, Conservative and Traditional Jews go to a
synagogue to pray to God. Reformed Jews call their place of worship a
The beliefs that became the Jewish faith came about
slowly. However, some people were important in making it happen. Abraham, Isaac
and Jacob, known as the patriarchs are both the physical and spiritual ancestors
of Judaism. They founded the religion known as Judaism and their descendants are
the Jewish people. According to the Jewish tradition, Abraham was the first
person to believe there is only one God. He left his home to go on a journey to
spread his belief. He believed that was what God wanted him to do. He began to
teach his beliefs to others. God promised Abraham that one day his descendants
would posses a land called Canaan, which came to be known as the
In Christianity, the followers are called Christians.
Many aspects of the Christian religion have been adapted from Judaism.
Christians believe that Jesus was the 'Son of God' and the Messiah.
They also believe that Jesus suffered and died for people's sins and then
that he rose from the dead. Jesus established Christianity around 4 B.C.E.
Christians believe that Jesus was crucified in
There are many similarities between the two religions.
The religions are both monotheistic meaning they believe that they have one God
who created the universe. Both
Those are only a few of the similarities and differences between Judaism and Christianity. They have differences and similarities that pertain to geography, sectarianism, role of historical figures, doctrinal beliefs and political relationships. Mutually, they are able to live, work, worship, create friendships and form harmonious communities.
GENTS!! This is one of my
final papers for my Religion Class, I know you guys are sick of me posting all
my crap but your remarks and peer reviews have helped.
A SPECIAL THANKS to Jason
for the book recommendations you will notice I been using then as references!
Send replies to the my
rgular places but prefer to talk about it at WARRIOR TALK… I know this was a
There are many different belief systems, some are religions and some not. All cultures develop a collection of beliefs and values that are used to meet its society's needs. A belief system is a way of perceiving and interacting in a society guided by a set of established moral rules. Our beliefs are an essential part of who we are and how we behave. A culture with a strong belief system is shaped by it. This paper will contain information about the Catholic religion. The report will compare the Catholic religion with Islamic religion.
I chose to interview United States Army Captain
Mathew Tataglier. He is a 46-year-old catholic and attends Good Shepherd Roman
Catholic Church, in Hope Mills,
I asked Mathew how he felt that the Catholic Church had evolved since its inception. He stated that he feels that the church is criticized publicly in the news too often. When asked if it is difficult to be a devout Catholic in the 21st century he said yes. There are so many cultural differences and the Catholic Church is not as forgiving as other denominations. Mathew has considered changing to a different religion but he feels a sense of loyalty to the Catholic Church and fears that there will be a heavy punishment if he does. The important holidays and traditions of Catholics are Easter, Christmas, confession, confirmation, and communion. Mathew says the challenges to practicing Catholicism are the strict rules and traditions that come along with being a member of this faith. He feels torn between remaining a faithful member in his current denomination and changing to a different church that may be more of a progressive catholic church. He says that his daughter is attending a non-denominational church and loves it. Mathew would like to have that same feeling but doubts he will ever have that if he stays in his current religion (M. Tataglier, personal interview, August 16, 2009).
The Catholic religion begins sometime shortly after
the death of Christ. Everyone who believed in Christ was considered a Christian
and it was a universal religion. “Catholic in Webster dictionary means
universal. It is believed that the Apostle Peter was the rock and Jesus Christ
said he was going to build his church on the rock found in Mathew 16:18-19
(American Catholic, 2007).” After Christ was crucified, it was believed that
Apostle Peter built the church and that Peter was the first Catholic Bishop of
The comparison between Catholicism and Islam seems
initially promising. Both traditions are monotheistic, with bases in sacred
texts. Both have strong traditions of missionary activity and evangelization,
and both are prominent political actors in a variety of national and regional
contexts. The differences may also be illuminating; Catholicism represents the
interests of an organization with relatively precise boundaries, as opposed to
the more diffuse nature of political Islam. Conversely, Islam is the dominant
tradition in a developing, yet emergent, region of the world, while Catholicism
has long been associated with formerly hegemonic colonial powers in
The Catholic faith is one of the strongest faiths in
the world. The worshiping event is called mass and it is held everyday across
the world. Sunday mass is required since Sunday is the Sabbath day. They can
attend a Saturday night mass, which counts as a Sunday mass. “There are two
readings from the bible during every mass and the first one is taken from the
Old Testament and the second is taken from the New Testament. The readings are
the same across the world. Today's readings are the same here as they are in
A person from another religion would not understand all that goes on during mass unless they have been educated. One is not able to take communion (the blood and the body of Christ) unless they have had the classes and have confessed his/her sins. The school for new coming adults is called Rite of Christian Initiation for Adults (RCIA). This class is usually taught one night a week for eight weeks. It will teach the new member every thing they need to know in being a catholic (American Catholic, 2007).
The children go to different classes, which are called Confraternity of Christian Doctrine (CCD). These classes are specially designed to teach the children. The catholic religion strongly encourages that the children be sent to catholic schools for education.
Both Islam and Christianity share almost the same framework; though they also differ in many different ways their overall beliefs are comparable. “The epic story of how Islam began has often been told of how an orphaned camel driver in Mecca from the Quraysh tribe became the ruler of a nation, the unifier of warring Arab tribes, the founder of a great religion, and the chief instrument in the creation of an empire (Cash, 1937).” Christianity differs from other religions because it is not merely a system of theology but rather a life to be lived, a life that is centered in the living Christ and that is lived in complete loyalty and obedience to Him as Savior and Lord.
The word Islam means ‘surrender’ or ‘submission,’ submission to the will of Allah, the one God. Muslims are those who have submitted themselves. The basic creed of Islam is brief: There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the Prophet of Allah. Islam teaches that there is one God, the creator and sustainer of the universe. This God, Allah, is compassionate and just. Because He is compassionate, He calls all people to believe in Him and worship Him. Though Mr. Cash states that Christianity differs from others religions according to its creed, it is obvious that Islam has derived its doctrine from Christianities beliefs. The life of each Muslim is always within the community of the faithful: All are declared “brothers to each other,” with the mission to "enjoin good and forbid evil (Mahmud, 1960).”Within the community, Muslims are expected to establish social and economic justice. They are also expected to carry their message out to the rest of the world.
In the early Islamic community, this meant the use
of force in the form of jihad, or holy war. This also happened in the Christian
faith, it was known as "Crusades,” where missionaries would go out and
spread the word of God. In 1492 a series of invasions from Christian Europe was
aimed at recapturing the holy Land and protecting the
During the decades following the death of Muhammad, certain essential principles were singled out from his teachings to serve as anchoring points for the Islamic community. These have come to be called the "five pillars of Islam. Similar to the five pillars, the Ten Commandments are regarded as law in the Christian faith. The revelations that Muhammad received were collected into a new book, the Qur'an, directing his followers what to believe and how to live. Many Muslims believed that Allah inspired everything Muhammad said and did, many reports of his sayings and deeds were collected (Endress, 1988).
Muslims have two separate books to reflect upon
Christians mainly refer to the Bible. The Bible can also be considered two books
being divided into the Old Testament and the New Testament. “Today the Qur'an
is the world's single most memorized and recited sacred text (Corey and Landry,
2003).” Islam recognizes two forms of prayer. One is the personal, devotional,
and spontaneous type, not bound by any rituals or formulas. The other is a
ritual, often congregational prayer, with specific words and postures, to be
offered five times a day: at sunrise, midday, mid-afternoon, sunset, and before
going to bed facing Mecca, the holy city of Islam being the death place of
Muhammad. Similarly, Christianity requires you to prayer individually on your
own time, but also collectively in church every Sunday. In Catholicism, which is
a form of Christianity, priests are required to pray five times a day much like
the Muslims. “The chief day of communal worship for Islam is Friday. Believers
gather at the mosque to pray, listen to portions of the Qur'an, and hear a
sermon based on the text that is almost identical to the way mass are held at
church in Christianity. The sermon may have moral, social, or political content.
Islam has no ordained clergy such a Christian churches, but there are men
specially trained in religion, tradition, and law (Islamic Web, 2007).”After
Christ was crucified, it was believed that Apostle Peter built the church and
that Peter was the first Catholic Bishop of
Islam and Christianity are indeed woven from identical fabrics. In a sense, it was geography that separated these prodigal brothers. The Qur'an relies heavily on Christian traditions. It was Muhammad's contention that Christianity had departed from the belief in God's message that was revealed in their Scriptures. Though these religions have various differences, they are in short still intertwined.
American Catholic (2007). Retrieved August 15, 2009 from http://www.americancatholic.org.
Corey, Catherine A. and David Landry (2003). The Christian Theological
Tradition. 2nd ed.
Do Muslims Worship Mohammed? (2007). Retrieved August 15, 2009, from http://www.islamicweb.com.
Fisher, Mary Pat (2005). Living religions (6th ed.). [
Jelen, T. G. and Tamadonfar, M. (2007, January). Islam and Roman Catholicism and Transcivilizational Political Phenomena. Retrieved August 15, 2009 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p141994_index.html.
Mahmud, Sayyid Fayyaz (1960). A Short History of Islam.
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