TRACKING AND COUNTERTRACKING
USE OF LOCALS FOR GUIDES AND COMMANDO/SCOUT TRACKERS
common sense and a degree of experience, you can track terrorists. You must
develop the following traits and qualities to be successful and to lead your
stick to contact.
patient and steady.
able to move slowly and quietly, yet steadily, while detecting and interpreting
fast movement that may cause you to overlook signs, lose the spoor, or blunder
into a terrorist unit that is counter tracking.
persistent and have the skill and desire to continue the mission even though
signs are scarce or bad weather or terrain is destroying the spoor.
determined and persistent when trying to find a spoor you have lost.
observant and try to see things that are not obvious at first glance.
your sense of smell and hearing to supplement your sight and intuition.
Develop a feel
for things that do not look right. It may help you regain a lost trail or
discover additional spoor.
- Know the terrorist, his habits, equipment, and capability.
ability to track a terrorist after he has broken contact also helps you regain
contact with him, which is more important in the African bush than in any other
theater of war.
tracking is following the paths of men or animals by the signs they leave,
primarily on the ground or vegetation. Scent tracking is following men or
animals by their smell.
is a precise art. You need a lot of practice to achieve and maintain a high
level of tracking skill. You should be familiar with the general techniques of
tracking to enable you to detect the presence of a hidden enemy and to follow
him, to find and avoid mines or booby traps, and to give early warning of
you should think back to when you first began this operation. Let’s assume you
are operating on a fairly long-term contract.
equipment should be organized during this period as well , and any remedial training conducted. Pay
special attention to camouflage. Secure all your gear, discard inessentials, and
inspect the troops for the same. Carry food, water, and ammunition and go as
light as possible. Some trackers dress like the terrorists and use captured
weapons. This is helpful if you are tracking outside your own country into
caution. A large number of people, dressed in the correct uniform, have been
shot in error by their own troops. Weigh the pros and cons carefully. Also try
to learn as much about native fieldcraft as possible. How do they use the
terrain to survive? Where do they get food and water, and what do they use for
expedient tools and weapons?
all information on local weather. It will have a definite effect on your
operations and hence your tracking. By enlisting the natives, if possible, to
teach you about local vegetation, you will gain excellent survival information
which may help you make decisions about terrorist movements. If he is far from
his supply bases, he will attempt to live off the land to sustain or even expand
his operations, especially if native assistance is denied him.
do not assume that the enemy is an excellent bushman just because he is
indigenous to that continent. In Rhodesia, Angola, and Mozambique, terrorists
have been found wandering, lost and starving, because they were also strangers.
If you know the ground and are comfortable in it, you already have a 30-percent
edge on the enemy.
during your terrain study, note native customs and attempt to learn some of the
language and folklore. This takes time and effort and on short-term jobs will be
nearly impossible, but if you have the time, it will pay big dividends. It may
give you the necessary edge to come out of the next contact standing up instead
of lying down.
as much information as possible about wildlife in the area. It will be
invaluable in tracking.
tracking a terrorist, you should build a picture of him in your mind. Ask
yourself, “How many persons am I following? How well are they trained? How are
they equipped? Are they healthy? How is their morale? Do they know they are
being followed?” You should ask questions of the survivors of a terrorist
attack and find out as much about the leader as possible and how he thinks.
the terrorist. The better you understand him, his motives, aspirations, traits,
habits, tactics, and attitudes, the greater your tactical edge. As a result, you
will be able to run him to ground sooner. Once you understand the terrorist,
your task will become much easier.
possible, keep notes on tactics employed against your stick and other police and
paramilitary groups. Look for patterns of the terrorist group in general and of
specific commanders in particular. Watch his standard operating procedures and
record his responses to your tactics. Intelligence is usually extremely limited
to a mercenary, so be your own second in charge (2 IC). Absorb every piece of
information available to you.
dealing with native troops, be firm, fair, and honest. Be friendly but not
familiar; treat them with respect and accord them the dignity due their station
in the tribe. Treat them well but not lavishly. Make sure they understand
exactly what is expected of them and guide them adequately in the field. Never
assume anything unless you can deliver, and never lie to them. In many
situations only mutual trust
and respect will keep them loyal to you.
you have employed your trackers, you may wonder how to gauge their
effectiveness. Probably the most positive way is to see how often they track
into contact. If they are constantly being fired on first, then your trackers
are of only marginal ability. Good trackers will be able to tell how far ahead
the enemy is and alert you to this so you can request air cover or more
follow-up troops to reinforce your patrol.
for the most important aspect: How to track. First, psychologically and
physically prepare for the hunt. You should be in good physical condition with
excellent reserves of stamina, alert, reasonably well-fed, and above all
confident in yourself and your men. You may be forced to travel for days under
adverse conditions, without food and with little water, at a fast pace, and
under tremendous mental stress. Tracking requires intense concentration,
stamina, and an eye for detail.
you must know what to look for when reading spoor (tracks). When you begin
tracking, try spooring large groups in easy terrain for short distances. Usually
soft ground with knee-high grass is best. Send out three or four people with
instructions to walk for about five to ten minutes, depending on the bush
growth, and then track until you find them. Your attention span at first will be
short and you will tend to become discouraged quickly. You will lose the spoor
often, but don’t worry. No one is a born bushman. Be patient and concentrate
on the spoor. As you become more aware of what to look for, the legs of spoor
can be lengthened until spoor layers are given a thirty-minute head start. This
can be extended to hours, until they are laying spoor in the morning and you are
tracking later in the day.
you are tracking, look for evidence of disturbed grass; bent blades will reveal
the direction of travel. The top of the grass will point in the direction the
person is walking. If the enemy has passed through after sunrise, the dew will
be disturbed and a faint darkened area will reveal his trail. Watch for broken
spider webs or cobwebs. When examining spoor always keep your head slightly up
and look fifteen to twenty yards ahead of you. It will enable you to see the
spoor better, determine the direction of movement, and keep alert for likely
ambush areas. If the terrorist knows or suspects he is being followed, he
will try to set you up.
alert, patient, and careful. Watch for rocks that have been overturned. The dark
side will be up or you will see the impression on the ground where it once
rested. Although midday heat will dry the rock quickly, it tells you the
terrorist is only hours ahead of you. If you find it in the morning, then he has
been moving prior to sunrise. The darker and wetter the rock, the closer your
for discarded ration packages, food tins, and even dropped or discarded
documents. U.S. troops in Vietnam were easily tracked, not by recently cut
jungle foliage but by their inevitable trail of Kool-Aid packages and junk. Once
you have identified the spoor, try to identify the type of footgear. Often
different guerrilla groups wear different types of boots. Terrorists in Africa
have been killed and captured carrying two or three types of shoes and wearing
two or three shirts and pants at the same time! Make sure the print is not one
of your own people or a regular army unit, and keep a record of the different
types of prints you encounter. Plaster impressions, drawings, photos or even a
copy of the soles themselves should be on record with local intelligence people.
The military intelligence unit makes copies of all terrorist footwear and
distributes these drawings to local population. Village police, hunters, and
farmers walking in the bush have often discovered the trails of terrorist gangs
who have crossed from one border to another and have alerted the security
you have the personnel, you can assign tracking teams to each terrorist’s
tracks. If not, pick one and run him to ground, then pick another. Try to stay
with the main body, if possible. You may get lucky and nail the commander or
political officer or you may end up following the spoor to the RV point where
you can ambush the entire gang.
will also have some effect on reading spoor. If you are tracking into the
sun and are experiencing difficulty in seeing the sign, look back over your
shoulder every few yards to confirm your spoor. Never walk on the spoor and
caution the follow-up troops behind you to also walk to one side of the tracks.
you lose the spoor, it is imperative that you go back to the last positive sign,
confirm it, and then begin a search pattern to relocate the tracks. Watch for
the absence of insects or wildlife. Most wild creatures are shy of man and will
seek shelter if he has been in the area. Birds are great indicators of men, as
are baboon, impala, and many types of gazelle. Listen for animals snorting or
running and note the direction. Something is there.
tracker. He is responsible for reading the spoor and
interpreting it to the stick leader.
flankers. These two troopers, who are also trained
trackers, are responsible for the forward and flank security of the tracker.
As the tracker becomes fatigued, they rotate duties with him so that all the
trackers remain fresh and alert. The stick leader does not pull tracker or
flanker duty. The flanker’s function is most important; he will probably see
and engage the enemy first. He must be alert and ready for instant action.
Generally just about all standard infantry tactics apply to tracking sticks with the exception of crossing obstacles such as rivers, streams, roads, trails, or rail lines. Instead of the flankers crossing to recon the other side and then calling the rest of the unit over, the stick, after carefully observing the far side, crosses together under the cover of the follow-up troops. This is done to keep any spoor on the other side intact and undisturbed. The risk imposed upon the stick by use of this tactic is less important than staying on the tracks of what could prove to be an important terrorist leader.
Another important point is to determine the age of the spoor and the number of personnel involved. To determine age, note the way in which vegetation is disturbed. Grass blades will remain green for about a day after being broken. Prints in mud will usually take about an hour to fill with water, depending on the amount of moisture in the earth. Disturbed dew drops on grass and plants will indicate passage of something within the last few hours. Dew usually stays on for about four hours after sunrise. Overturned rocks take a couple of hours to dry in direct sun. Cobwebs and spider webs usually take about an hour to be replaced by the insects.
can also be used to your advantage to indicate age of spoor. If you know the
last time it rained in the area, you can tell how old the tracks are. Animal
prints superimposed on the spoor will tell you that the spoor was made prior to
nightfall, since most animals move at night. The reverse is also applicable; if
you see the spoor on the animal prints, the spoor was made sometime after
takes place when something is moved from its original position. An example is a
footprint in soft, moist ground. The foot of the person that left the print
displaced the soil, leaving an indentation in the ground. By studying the print,
you can determine many facts. For example, a print that was left by a barefooted
person or one with worn or frayed footgear indicates that he may have poor
show the following:
The direction and rate of movement of the terrorist group.
The number of terrorists in the group.
Whether or not heavy loads are carried.
The sex of the terrorist group.
the footprints are deep and the pace is long, the group is moving rapidly. Very
long strides and deep prints indicate that the group is running. If the prints
are deep, short, and widely spaced, with signs of scuffing or shuffling, a heavy
load is probably being carried by the group who left the prints.
can also determine a terrorist’s sex by studying the size and position of the
footprints. Women generally tend to be pigeon-toed, while men usually walk with
their feet pointed straight ahead or slightly to the outside. Women’s prints
are usually smaller than men’s and their strides are usually shorter.
the terrorist group knows that it is being followed, it may attempt to hide its
tracks. Men walking backward have a short, irregular stride. The prints have an
unusually deep toe. The soil will be kicked in the direction of movement.
last terrorist walking in a group usually leaves the clearest footprints.
Therefore, use his prints as the key set. Cut a stick the length of each key
print and notch the stick to show the print width at the widest part of the
sole. Study the angle of the key prints to determine the direction of march.
Look for an identifying
mark or feature on the prints, such as a worn or frayed part of the footwear. (Refer
to the paragraph about different types of footwear.) If the spoor becomes vague
or obliterated, or if the trail being followed merges with another, use the
stick to help identify the key prints. That will help you stay on the trail of
the group being followed.
the box method to count the number of terrorists in the group. There are two
ways to use the box method-
the stride as a
unit of measure method and the 36-inch box method.
stride as a unit of measure method is the most accurate of the two. Twenty to
twenty-five persons can be counted using this method. Use it when the key prints
can be determined. To use this method, identify a key print on a trail and draw
a line from its heel across the trail. Then move forward to the key print of the
opposite foot and draw a line through its instep. This should form a box with
the edges of the trail forming two sides, and the drawn lines forming the other
two sides. Next, count every print or partial print inside the box to determine
the number of persons. Any person walking normally would have stepped in the box
at least one time. Count the key prints as one.
use the 36-inch box method, mark off a 30- to 36-inch cross-section of a
you discover a resting place, count the places on the ground and no matter what
the number, add two and report that number. Should you be operating more
conventionally, call in periodic tracking reports to your commando. These can be
plotted on a map and a general pattern determined. It will also allow different
terrorist groups to be plotted together to determine if this is some sort of
coordinated action. It will also establish what routes are being used to funnel
terrorist groups into and out of the country.
sample of a tracking report might follow the following format. First give your
location using the standard military grid system. The “N” is the number you
believe to be in the enemy unit as determined by your print count. "D" is
the general direction of spoor expressed by magnetic bearing. “A” is age of
spoor, if possible, and “T” equals the type of spoor followed, boots, shoes,
bare feet, etc.
are only one example of displacement. Displacement occurs when anything is moved
from its original position. Other examples are foliage, moss, vines, sticks, or
rocks that are moved from their original places; dew droplets brushed from
leaves; stones and sticks that are turned over and show a different color
underneath; and grass or other vegetation that is bent or broken in the
direction of movement.
example of displacement is the movement of wild animals and birds that are
flushed from their habitats. You may hear the cries of birds that are excited by
strange movements. The movement of tall grass or brush on a windless day
indicates that something is moving the vegetation from its original position.
you clear a trail by either breaking or cutting your way through heavy
vegetation, you displace the vegetation. Displacement signs can be made while
you stop to rest with heavy loads. The prints made by the equipment you carry
can help to identify its type. When loads are set down at a rest halt or
campsite, grass and twigs may be crushed. A sleeping man may also flatten the
most areas, there will be insects. Any changes in the normal life of these
insects may be a sign that someone has recently passed through the area. Bees
that are stirred up, holes that are covered by someone moving over them, or
spider webs that are torn down are good clues.
good example of spoor is the mark left by blood from a wound. Bloodstains often
will be in the form of drops left by a wounded terrorist. Blood signs are found
on the ground and smeared on leaves or twigs.
can determine the location of a wound on the terrorist being followed by
studying the bloodstains. If the blood seems to be dripping steadily, it
probably came from a wound on his trunk. A wound in the lungs will deposit
bloodstains that are pink, bubbly, and frothy. A bloodstain deposited from a
head wound will appear heavy, wet, and slimy, like gelatin. Abdominal wounds
often mix blood with digestive juices so that the deposit will have an odor.
The spoor will be light in cal or.
can also occur when a person walks over grass, stones, and shrubs with muddy
boots. Thus, spoor and displacement together may give evidence of movement and
indicate the direction taken. Crushed leaves may stain rocky ground that is too
hard for footprints.
stones, and vines may be stained by crushed leaves or berries when walked
some cases, it may be hard to determine the difference between spoor and
Both terms can be applied to some signs. For example, water that has been
muddied may indicate recent movement. The mud has been displaced and is staining
the water. Stones in streams may be stained by mud from boots. Algae can be
displaced from stones in streams and can stain other stones or bark.
may either aid or hinder tracking. It affects signs in ways that help determine
how old they are, but wind, snow, rain, and sunlight can also obliterate signs
are greatly affected by weather. When a foot displaces soft, moist soil to form
a print, the moisture holds the edges of the print intact and sharp. As
sunlight and air dry the edges of the print, small particles that were held in
place by the moisture fall into the print. If particles are just beginning to
fall into a print, it is probably fresh. If the edges of the print are dried and
crusty, the prints are probably at least an hour old. The effects of weather
will vary with the terrain, so this information is furnished as a guide only.
light rain may round out the edges of a print. Try to remember when the last
rain occurred in order to put prints into the proper time frame. A heavy rain
may erase all signs.
also affects prints. Besides drying out a print the wind may blow litter,
sticks, or leaves into it. Try to remember the wind activity in order to help
the age of a print. For example, you may think, “It is calm now, but the wind
blew hard an hour ago. These prints have litter blown into them, so they must be
over an hour old.” You must be sure, however, that the litter was blown into
the prints, and was not crushed into them when the prints were made.
Sound, and Odors
affects sounds and odors. If the wind is blowing from the direction of a trail
you are following, sounds and odors are carried to you. If the wind is blowing
in the same direction as the trail you are following, you must be cautious as
the wind will carry your sounds toward the terrorist group. To find the wind
direction, drop a handful of dry dirt or grass from shoulder height.
trained terrorist groups may leave trails of litter as they move. Gum or candy
wrappers, ration cans, cigarette butts, remains of fires, or human feces are
unmistakable signs of recent movement.
terrorist may move on hard surfaced, frequently traveled roads or try to merge
with traveling civilians. Examine such routes with extreme care, because a well defined
that leads to the enemy will probably be mined, ambushed, or covered
terrorist group may try to avoid leaving a trail. Its terrorists may wrap rags
around their boots, or wear soft soled shoes to make the edges of their
rounder and less distinct. The party may exit a stream in a column or line to
reduce the chance of leaving a well defined exit.
the terrorist group walks backward to leave a confusing trail, the footprints
will be deepened at the toe, and the soil will be scuffed or dragged in the
direction of movement.
USE OF INTELLIGENCE
reporting, do not report your interpretations as facts. Report that you have
seen signs of certain things, not that those things actually exist.
all information quickly. The term “immediate use intelligence” includes
information of the terrorist that can be put to use at once to gain surprise, to
keep the terrorist off balance, or to keep him from escaping an area. A
commander has many sources of intelligence. He puts the information from those
sources together to help determine where a terrorist is, what he may be
planning, and where he may be going. Do what you are there to do- track.
dogs may be used to help track a terrorist group. Tracker dogs are trained and
used by their handlers. A dog tracks human scent and the scent of disturbed
vegetation caused by man’s passing.
dogs should be used with tracker sticks. The stick can track visually, and the
dog and handler can follow. If the stick loses the signs, then the dog can take
over. A dog can track faster than a man, and it can track at night.
tracker dog is trained not to bark and give away the stick. It is also trained
odors, and deodorants used to throw it off the ‘track. The tracker dog
stick leader should
let each trooper of the stick touch the dog to eliminate fears the trooper
dogs have limitations which should be borne in mind. Dogs have acute senses of
smell, good hearing, and are attracted quickly to movement. Dogs are subject to
periodic retraining and are as sensitive to the elements as humans.
best position for the dog stick is directly in front of the patrol. Wind
conditions may require that the stick move to windward to take advantage of the
dog’s sense of smell. Some dogs can, depending on weather and wind, sense the
terrorist two hundred meters away.
following are some general rules for dog sticks:
1. If the handler is killed, leave the dog with
him and report it to your HQ.
2. If the handler is a casualty, try to lure the
dog away so you can treat him. If you must evacuate one, send the other as well.
3. Treat the stick as one of the unit. Support
it and keep the handler informed of all tactical moves.
4. Let the handler select the dog’s position
in the line of march.
5. Seek the handler’s advice in employing the
6. Do not expect the tracker dog stick to
perform miracles and do not relax your alertness because they are with you.
Use of Tracker Dogs In Ambush Contacts
great many insurgents wounded in ambush get away. In many cases they escape by
running into the undergrowth and lying low until the hue and cry has died down
and they can crawl away. The employment of tracker groups will quite often lead
to their capture or elimination.
has shown that the blood trail left by wounded insurgents is not always an aid
to a tracker dog and is sometimes more useful as a visual aid to the human
tracker group should not form part of the ambush party, but should stand by at
some convenient RV ready to move when shooting indicates that the ambush has
the information in this chapter will not make you an ace tracker, it will give
you a better awareness of tracking and the tactics employed by sticks.
only way to become a competent, reliable tracker is to use the method of the
natives: practice, practice, practice. It is a skill that can stand you in good
stead on your next operation, enhance your combat effectiveness, and perhaps
save your life.
Africa has an abundant supply of superb trackers among the African population,
to whom game hunting is. still important as a means of sustenance, though
illegal. African whites include some of the finest hunters and trackers in the world,
but their numbers
are small, so the skills of native poachers have now become a national resource
employed to combat terrorism.
Africa, in the areas still hunted, trackers and hunters are in great demand by professional
hunters. They are often employed as farm labor solely to have their skills
available when hunting season rolls around. Native trackers are also popular in
the military and the police because of their stalwart martial tradition and
almost arrogant martial spirit.
the supply of tribal trackers available to the army and police rarely equals
the demand, because most of those possessing such skills are illiterate, and therefore
unqualified for recruitment into the regular army or police units. Some were
“too old” at fifty although lean as panthers and in the prime of their
mental faculties. Sooner or later, such a valuable, if primitive, resource has
to be tapped and your commando unit should not pass up such an untapped reserve.
Tracker Unit Précis
preamble to the tracker unit précis is worth repeating:
African Tracker Unit is a unit which has been formed primarily to promote and
utilize more of the inherent tracking potential so abundant in our many African
Lands. These men are unsophisticated and would normally not avail themselves
for army conscription, but they are quite prepared to offer their services on
a professional basis if along uncomplicated lines.
speaking, the primitive African has a natural instinct for tracking and is
either a born hunter or has spent most of his life herding and tracking down
livestock. This instinct has, however, got to be motivated and then married to
common military tactics, and it is with this aim in mind that this unit has
carefully formulated ways and means of promoting this important auxiliary
(commando unit) of the regular army forces. Having said this, it cannot be
emphasized enough that you as the commando should both understand and appreciate
the primitive, voluntary nature of his service when dealing with him, and it is
essential that you do not overwhelm him with sophisticated military
regimentation. Allow him to do his job. Don’t bind in unless discipline is
necessary. Be precise in where he stands. Let him “do the job” or you will
find someone else.
bonuses are offered in addition to their normal high pay which must remain confidential.
Bonuses are paid for confirmed terrorist (Charley Tango) kills as
a direct result of tracker’s follow-up and for outstanding performance, e.g., exceptional
follow-up, in which, despite the tracker’s skill, the exercise resulted in no
CT kills, contact, or discovery of arms caches. Reports are filled out by the
stick leader who assesses the tracker’s performance at end of camp. These are
analyzed by the unit commander and a payout is made on this basis according to
government scale if a reward is officially offered.
sticks number from four at full strength, to four with a stick leader, and under
him a second in command. No rank structure exists in the unit but the stick
leader and his number two are given corporal stripes. Trackers are normally used
on three-day patrols to ensure that one stick of the team is at base at all
times, rested, ready, and alert, so as to react instantly in emergencies. Since
their main function is to follow and locate spoor, these men are not strongly
trained or depended upon for combat or general soldiering, and once their
efforts result in a contact they normally fade into the background. However,
these men, during their service, have become outstanding fighting men in many
cases, with outstanding successes during contacts with terrorist groups.
sticks of three trackers each can be used with one commando stick leader as
controller attached to each section. In this case, one tracker follows spoor and
the others flank him for his protection and to cut for lost spoor. Three groups
trackers each can be used with two commando troopers attached to each section. One
trooper is controller and the other assists in a flanking role.
commando troops should be experienced, and so time in country with close
knowledge of both the bush and the African, his language, and customs are
important. This vitally necessary close communication keeps efficiency from
being lost. In addition, the stick leader must stay with his sticks so the
trackers get to know, respect, and understand him. Trackers are also not
employed for guard duty or “shotgun riding” except in extreme emergencies.
Trackers are sometimes used in the role of interrogator after capture of suspected mujibas or terrorists, but
controllers must keep a good grip on them to prevent cruelty or heavy-handedness
caused by tribal instincts. Keep the objective in the minds of
all at all times. Do not digress into any cruelty at all or allow it. Trackers
can also be used for clandestine purposes in tribal lands other than their
own, if they volunteer and are given adequate protection from compromise and
leaders must have the trackers’ full confidence and feel free to discuss
problems with them, whether personal or military in nature, to preclude an
information gap. Likewise, the stick leader should be aware of the primitive
nature of his pseudo-terrorists or trackers and have their security and welfare
first in his mind. He must ensure that backup is available when contact is made
and that trackers must not be used as “feelers” or be allowed to wander off
alone without support when a large 360-degree search is called for. Trackers
quickly detect any falling back of protection units and this causes them to lose
momentum on follow-ups. After a patrol, contact, or stand down, the stick
leader checks all weapons for safety to avoid accidents or compromises.
tracking, consisting of as much as 50 klicks in two days, brings bonuses, as
does ‘a foray into enemy territory or base camps. The tracker has an eye for
camouflaged base camps, arms caches, etc., plus an ability to detect abnormal
demeanor in locals which may indicate tension due to terrorist presence.
addition to knowing how to track, you must know how to counter a terrorist
tracker’s efforts to track you.
1. While moving
from close terrain to open terrain, walk past a big tree (30 cm
in diameter or larger) toward the open area for three to five paces. Then
walk backward to the
forward side of the tree and make a 90-degree change of direction, passing
the tree on its forward side. Step carefully and leave as little
sign as possible. If this is not the direction that you want to go, change direction again
about fifty meters away using the same technique. The purpose of this is to draw
the terrorist tracker into the open area where it is harder for him to track. That
also exposes him and causes him to search the wrong area.
approaching a trail (about one hundred meters from it), change your direction
of movement and approach it at a 45-degree angle. When arriving at the trail,
move along it for about twenty to thirty meters. Leave several signs of your
presence. Then walk backward along the trail to the point where you joined it.
At that point, cross the trail and leave no sign of your leaving it. Then move
about one hundred meters at an angle of 45 degrees, but this time on the other
side of the trail and in the reverse of your approach. When changing direction
back to your original line of march, the big tree technique is used to draw the
enemy tracker along the easier trail. You have, by changing direction before
reaching the trail, indicated that the trail is your new
line of march.
3. To leave a false trail and to get an enemy tracker to look in the wrong direction,
walk backward over soft ground. Continue this deception for about twenty to
thirty meters or until you are on hard ground. Use this technique when leaving a
stream. To further confuse the terrorist tracker, use this technique several
times before actually leaving the stream.
4. When moving
toward a stream, change direction about one hundred meters before reaching the
stream and approach it at a 45-degree angle. Enter the stream and proceed down
it for at least twenty to thirty meters. Then move back upstream and leave the
stream in your initial direction. Changing direction before entering the stream
may confuse the terrorist tracker. When he enters the stream, he should follow
the false trail until the trail is lost. That will put him well away from you.
5. When your
direction of movement parallels a stream, use the stream to deceive a terrorist
tracker. Some tactics that will help elude a tracker are as follows:
in the stream for one hundred to two hundred meters.
in the center of the stream and in deep water.
for rocks or roots near the banks that are not covered with moss or vegetation
and leave the stream at that point.
out backward on soft ground.
up a small, vegetation covered tributary and exit from it.
***Source*** This information was obtained from the book: AFRICAN MERC COMBAT MANUAL. By Chris Pessarra. Printed 1986, Paladin Press.